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Chapter 3. Upgrading of Laterite Ores 3.1. Laterite Ores 3.2. Upgrading of Laterite Ores 3.3. Extent of Upgrading 3.4. Economic Justification for Upgrading Laterites 3.5. Principles and Methods of Upgrading Laterites 3.6. Evaluation 3.7. Summary Chapter 4. Overview of the Smelting of Nickel Laterite to Ferronickel 4.1. Feed to Ferronickel Smelting 4.2. Ferronickel Product 4.3. Principles of Ferronickel Smelting 4.4. Brief Process Description Chapter 5. Dewatering and Calcination of Laterite Ores 5.1. Dewatering of the Upgraded Laterite Ore 5.2. Control of the Dewatering Kiln 5.3. Calcination and Reduction of Dewatered Laterite 5.4. Chemistry 5.5. Products 5.6. Appraisal 5.7. Summary Chapter 6. Smelting of Laterite Ores to Ferronickel 6.1. reactions in the Electric Furnace 6.2. Nickel Recovery 6.3. Melting Temperatures 6.4. Industrial Smelting Furnaces 6.5. Method of Heating the Furnace 6.6. Electrodes 6.7. Furnace Operation 6.8. Control 6.9. Appraisal and Future Trends 6.10. Summary Chapter 7. Refining Molten Ferronickel 7.1. Phosphorus Removal 7.2. Sulfur Removal 7.3. Industrial Refining 7.4. Removing Other Impurities 7.5. Casting of Ferronickel 7.6. Appraisal 7.7. Summary Chapter 8. Smelting Laterite Concentrates to Sulfide Matte 8.1. Matte Production Flowsheets 8.2. Pt Inco Process 8.3. Le Nickel Process Making Matte from Molten Refined Ferronickel 8.4. Process Appraisal 8.5. Summary Chapter 9. Roasting Matte to Nickel Oxide and Metal 9.1. Matte Roasting Objectives 9.2. Chemistry 9.3. Products 9.4. Industrial Roasting 9.5. Re-Roasting 9.6. Fluidization 9.7. Advantages Of Fluidized Beds 9.8. Industrial Operation 9.9. Reduction Roasting 9.10. Nickel Recovery 9.11. Sulfur Capture 9.12. Summary Chapter 10. Overview of the Hydrometallurgical Processing of Laterite Ores 10.1. Introduction 10.2. Alternatives to Mixed Sulfide Precipitation 10.3. Downstream Processing 10.4. Summary Chapter 11. High-Temperature Sulfuric Acid Leaching of Laterite Ores 11.1. Chapter Objectives 11.2. Sulfuric Acid Leaching 11.3. Chemistry 11.4. Autoclave Operation 11.5. Process Appraisal 11.6. Summary Chapter 12. Precipitation Of NickelCobalt Sulfide 12.1. Reasons for Making a Mixed-Sulfide Precipitate 12.2. Flowsheet 12.3. Autoclave Exit Slurry Neutralization 12.4. Solution Reneutralization 12.5. Removal of Zinc and Copper From Solution by Sulfide Precipitation 12.6. Precipitation of NickelCobalt Sulfide 12.7. Product Destination 12.8. Appraisal 12.9. Summary Chapter 13. Extraction of Nickel and Cobalt from Sulfide Ores 13.1. Nickel Sulfide Ores 13.2. Extraction of Nickel and Cobalt from Sulfide Ores 13.3. Hydrometallurgical Alternatives to Matte Smelting 13.4. Voisey's Bay Process for Leaching Nickel Concentrates 13.5. Heap Leaching of Nickel Sulfide Ore 13.6. Summary Chapter 14. Production of Nickel Concentrates from Sulfide Ores 14.1. The Advantages of Grinding and Concentration 14.2. Crushing and Grinding 14.3. Comminution Steps 14.4. Control of Particle Size 14.5. Recent Developments 14.6. Summary Chapter 15. Production of Nickel Concentrate from Ground Sulfide Ore 15.1. Need for Concentration 15.2. Principles of Froth Flotation 15.3. Flotation Cells 15.4. Flotation Chemicals 15.5. Specific Flotation Procedures for Pentlandite Ores 15.6. Flotation Products 15.7. Operation and Control 15.8. Recent Developments 15.9. Summary Chapter 16. Separation of Chalcopyrite from Pentlandite by Flotation 16.1. Chapter Objectives 16.2. Separation of Chalcopyrite and Pentlandite 16.3. Industrial Practice 16.4. Grinding 16.5. Summary Chapter 17. Smelting of Nickel Sulfide Concentrates by Roasting and Electric Furnace Smelting 17.1. Principles of Roasting and Smelting 17.2. Chemistry of Roasting 17.3. Electric Furnace Smelting 17.4. Industrial Electric Furnaces 17.5. Summary Chapter 18. Flash Smelting of Nickel Sulfide Concentrates 18.1. Objective of the Process Nickel Enrichment 18.2. Advantages and Disadvantages 18.3. Extent of Oxidation 18.4. Chemistry 18.5. Industrial Flash Smelting 18.6. Outotec-Type Flash Furnace 18.7. Inco-Type Flash Furnace 18.8. Peripheral Equipment 18.9. Operation and Control of the Flash Furnace 18.10. Appraisal 18.11. Recent Trends 18.12. Summary Chapter 19. Converting Final Oxidation of Iron From Molten Matte 19.1. Starting and Finishing Compositions 19.2. Chemistry of Converting 19.3. Principles of Converting 19.4. Behavior of Other Metals 19.5. Choice of Final Iron Content 19.6. End-Point Determination 19.7. Capture of Sulfur Dioxide 19.8. Tuyeres and Oxygen Enrichment 19.9. Nitrogen-Shrouded Blast Injection 19.10. Converter Control 19.11. Alternatives to Peirce-Smith Converting 19.12. Direct to Low-Iron Matte Flash Smelting 19.13. Summary Chapter 20. Sulfur Dioxide Capture in Sulfuric Acid and Other Products 20.1. Nickel Extraction Offgases 20.2. Production of Sulfuric Acid from Roaster and Flash Furnace Offgases 20.3. Gas Cooling, Cleaning, and Drying 20.4. Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide to Sulfur Trioxide 20.5. Catalyst for the Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide 20.6. Making Acid from Sulfur Trioxide 20.7. Double-Contact Acid-Making 20.8. Acid Plant Products 20.9. Environmental Performance of the Nickel Industry 20.10. Making Sulfuric Acid for the Leaching of Nickel Laterite 20.11. Summary Chapter 21. Slow Cooling and Solidification of Converter Matte 21.1. Solidification and Slow Cooling Process 21.2. Industrial Matte Casting, Solidification and Slow Cooling 21.3. Concentrate Destinations 21.4. Summary Chapter 22. Carbonyl Refining of Impure Nickel Metal 22.1. Chemistry of the Process 22.2. Industrial Ambient Pressure Carbonylation 22.3. Decomposition of Nickel Carbonyl 22.4. High-Pressure Carbonyl Refining 22.5. Appraisal 22.6. Summary Chapter 23. Hydrometallurgical Production of High-Purity Nickel and Cobalt 23.1. Refining of Sulfide Precipitates from Laterite Leaching Operations 23.2. Refining of Nickel Mattes from Smelting Operations 23.3. Appraisal 23.4. Summary Chapter 24. Leaching of Nickel Sulfide Mattes and Precipitates 24.1. Chlorine Leaching 24.2. OxygenAmmonia Leaching 24.3. Leaching by Sulfuric Acid Solutions using Oxygen 24.4. Appraisal 24.5. Summary Chapter 25. Separation of Nickel and Cobalt by Solvent Extraction 25.1. Chapter Objectives 25.2. Principles of Solvent Extraction 25.3. Chloride Solvent Extraction 25.4. Solvent Extraction in Sulfate Solutions 25.5. Solvent Extraction in Ammoniacal Solutions 25.6. Solvent Extraction in Sulfate and Chloride Solutions 25.7. Diluents 25.8. Washing and Scrubbing the Organic 25.9. Impurity Removal 25.10. Appraisal 25.11. Summary Chapter 26. Electrowinning of Nickel from Purified Nickel Solutions 26.1. Objectives of this Chapter 26.2. Electrowinning Nickel from Chloride Electrolyte 26.3. Electrowinning Nickel from Sulfate Solutions 26.4. New Developments in Nickel Electrowinning 26.5. Other Electrolytic Nickel Processes 26.6. Appraisal 26.7. Summary Chapter 27. Hydrogen Reduction of Nickel from Ammoniacal Sulfate Solutions 27.1. Process Chemistry 27.2. Industrial Applications 27.3. Industrial Production of Nickel Powder 27.4. Appraisal 27.5. Summary Chapter 28. Cobalt Occurrence, Production, Use and Price 28.1. Occurrence and Extraction 28.2. Recycling of Cobalt 28.3. Uses of Cobalt 28.4. Global Mine Production 28.5. Price 28.6. Summary Chapter 29. Extraction of Cobalt from Nickel Laterite and Sulfide Ores 29.1. Cobalt Extraction from Nickel Laterite Ore 29.2. Refining of Cobalt 29.3. Extraction of Cobalt from Nickel Sulfide Ores 29.4. Summary Chapter 30. Production of Cobalt from the CopperCobalt Ores of the Central African Copperbelt 30.1. Typical Ore Deposit 30.2. Mining 30.3. Extraction of Cobalt and Copper from Weathered Ore 30.4. Exploiting the CobaltCopper Sulfide Ore Layer 30.5. Summary Chapter 31. Platinum-Group Metals, Production, Use and Extraction Costs 31.1. Uses of the Platinum-Group Elements 31.2. Mining of Platinum-Group Elements 31.3. Extraction of Platinum-Group Metals 31.4. Prices 31.5. Costs of Extraction of Platinum-Group Metals 31.6. Summary Chapter 32. Overview of the Extraction of Platinum-Group Metals Chapter 33. Production of Flotation Concentrates Containing Platinum-Group Metals 33.1. Ores and Concentrates 33.2. Ores Containing Platinum-Group Metals 33.3. South African Ores Containing Platinum-Group Metals 33.4. Production of Flotation Concentrate from The Merensky Reef 33.5. UG2 Ores and the Problem of Chromite 33.6. Flotation Reagents and Conditions 33.7. Improving Recovery of Platinum-Group Elements to Concentrate 33.8. Gravity Separation 33.9. Recent Developments 33.10. Summary Chapter 34. Extraction of Platinum-Group Metals from Russian Ores 34.1. Nickel Copper and Platinum Ores from Norilsk-Talnakh 34.2. Russian Production 34.3. Recent Developments 34.4. Summary Chapter 35. Smelting and Converting of Sulfide Concentrates Containing Platinum-Group Metals 35.1. Major Process Steps 35.2. Concentrate Drying 35.3. Smelting the Concentrates 35.4. Converting the Furnace Matte 35.5. Recent Developments in Smelting and Converting in The Platinum Industry 35.6. Summary Chapter 36. Separation of the Platinum-Group Metals from Base Metal Sulfides, and the Refining of Nickel, Copper and Cobalt 36.1. Overview of the Refining of the Platinum-Group Metals 36.2. Objectives of This Chapter 36.3. Base Metal Refineries Where Nickel is Produced as Nickel Sulfate 36.4. Base Metal Refineries Where Nickel is Produced as Powder by Hydrogen Reduction 36.5. Base Metals Refinery Where Nickel is Produced as Nickel Cathode 36.6. Appraisal 36.7. Summary Chapter 37. Refining of the Platinum-Group Metals 37.1. Objectives of this Chapter 37.2. Concentrate Composition 37.3. Separation Techniques Used in the Refining of the Platinum-Group Metals 37.4. Refining Efficiency 37.5. Classification of Refining Processes 37.6. Lonmin's Western Platinum Refinery 37.7. Krastsvetmet's Refinery at Krasnoyarsk 37.8. Appraisal of the Precipitation Processes 37.9. The Johnson Matthey/Anglo American Platinum Process 37.10. The Acton Refinery Process 37.11. Appraisal of the Solvent-Extraction Processes 37.12. Impala Platinum's Ion-Exchange Process 37.13. Appraisal of the Ion-Exchange Processes 37.14. Summary Chapter 38. Recycling of Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum-Group Metals 38.1. Recycling of Platinum-Group Metals from Automobile Catalyst 38.2. Recycling of Nickel in Stainless Steel 38.3. Recycling of Cobalt 38.4. Summary Appendix A. Ferronickel Smelting of Non-Tropical Laterite Ores Appendix B. Caron Process for Processing Nickel Laterites Appendix C. Flash Cooling of Autoclaves Appendix D. Counter-Current Decantation of Leaching Slurries Appendix E. Recovering Nickel-, Copper-, Cobalt- and Platinum-Group Elements from Slags Appendix F. Electrorefining of High-Purity Nickel from Cast Impure Ni Alloy and Ni Matte Anodes Appendix G. Top Blown Rotary Converter Appendix H. Nickel Carbonylation Free Energies and Equilibrium Constants Index

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Jaw Crusher Introduction :Jaw Crusher is ideally suitable for primary and secondary crusher for material with compression strength less than 320MPA. Jaw Crusher is of high crushing ratio, larger capacity, well-distributed final product size, simple structure, reliable performance, convenient maintenance, lower operation cost, etc. It is widely used in mining, metallurgy, construction, highway, railroad, and water conservancy, etc.Features of jaw crusher :1,High crushing ratio, well-distributed final product size.2,Discharge opening of the jaw crusher is adjustable reliably within a wide range through the stuffing of shim, thus it is capable to meet various requirements of customers3,lubrication system of it is safe and reliable, which boasts an easy and convenient maintenance4,simple structure, reliable performance, low maintenance cost5,little dust and low noiseParameter of Jaw CrusherModelFeeding size(mm)Max feeding size(mm)Discharging Range size(mm)Capacity (m3/h)Motor power(kw)Weight (t)PE-250*400250*40021020-603-13152.8PE-400*600400*60034040-10010-35306.5PE-500*750500*75042550-10025-605510.6PE-600*900600*90050065-18030-8555-7515.5PE-750*1060750*106063080-18072-15090-11028PE-800*1060800*1060680100-20085-14390-11030PE-870*1060870*1060750170-270145-23590-11030.5PE-900*1060900*1060780200-290170-25090-11031PE-900*1200900*120078095-225100-240110-13249PE-1000*12001000*1200850195-280190-275110-13251PE-1200*15001200* -30 0.9PEX-150*750150*75012018-485-16153.5PEX-250*750250*75021025-608-22224.9PEX-250*1000250*100021025-6010-3230-376.5PEX-250*1200250*120021025-6013-38377.7PEX-300*1300300*130025020-9010-657511Reference Photos of jaw Crusher

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Fixed and movable jaw plates are the two main components. A motor-driven eccentric shaft through suitable hardware makes the movable jaw plate travel in a regulated track and hit the materials in the crushing chamber comprising a fixed-jaw plate to assert compression force for crushing

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