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Cone crushers, also known as conical crushers, break rock between an eccentric rotating head and a bowl. The rotating head is covered by a wear-resistant mantle. The large pieces are broken once between the two jaws, then they gradually descend into the crusher where they continue to be broken until the pieces are small enough to pass through the narrow opening at the bottom of the breaking space. A cone crusher can crush a variety of rocks, from medium to hard. The way a cone crusher operates is similar to how agyratory crusherdoes, but in a cone crusher the slope in the breaking space is not as steep

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The liner profiles are designed for a range of product sizes, from extra coarse to extra fine. The extra fine liner profile will result in the highest fines proportion for a given cone crusher

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The above plot suggests a logarithmic relationship between expected annual REO output and entry price, and shows that the regressions are different for small and large capacity mines. This confirms the validity of treating the two bins separately for this analysis. While it is difficult to quantify a real-world average revenue of REOs this depends on the composition of the minerals mined, the market prices of the constituent REOs and REEs, the fraction of REOs refined to REEs, and the mass fraction of REEs these results show that it is more economical for a large mine and refinery to open than it is for a small mine to open. At the same time, large mines and refinery face significantly larger barriers to entry due to higher costs associated with higher production rates. It is also well established that the developmental period for larger mines is longer than that of smaller mines (Schuler, 2011). It is apparent is that it is not only economically feasible but also highly profitable to open mines in the locations assessed. Still, this process will take a minimum of five to ten years to be set in motion. However, once this occurs, the market for REEs will become more competitive, prices will drop to reflect this. This renders mining an economic, private sector-based solution to the REE supply crisis. The analysis thus far suggests that the mining solution to the problem of REE supply is entirely a free market solution that is, no governmental interference is required provided that the market follows the logical course. However, it becomes apparent from a qualitative assessment of the current state of the market that the entities with the capital to establish mines are already the primary stakeholders in this industry, and would simply be expanding their operations. If this were to occur, then competition would not be increased. It is in the interest of the world market, especially nations aspiring to be developed, that competition in the REE market is promoted, as competition generally drives prices down. Therefore, it is in the best interest of governments to provide incentives, particularly monetary ones, to emerging companies aspiring to open mines in these locations, as this will increase the number of players, and subsequently the level of competition, in the REE market. Timeline Based on cost analysis, Mission 2016 projects the timeline for opening new mines to be as such: By 2015: Bigger mines like Molycorp's Mountain Pass and Lynas' Mt Weld start producing at full capacity, increasing the amount of ore available by 56,000-57,000 tons ("Rare earths and yttrium"). Plans for new mines, both large and small, should be drawn up. Small mines in the aforementioned locations would be more feasible to have, with deposits in high concentrations but small amounts. Exploration of REE deposits continues for junior research companies. Research begins for new sources of phosphorus and possible substitutes for uranium. Research in recycling continues for PGE and some rare metals - alternative technologies also continue developing for rare metals, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) instead of Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs), which use indium. By 2020: Larger mines will begin stopping production while new mines, both smaller and larger, should be be opening up. Investigation of deposits worldwide should continue, particularly for elements such as phosphorus, uranium and platinum, as these will be in higher demand in future years. By 2030: Mining and establishing new mines should continue as projected. Exploration will continue as more mines are opened. Recycling and alternative technologies should begin to become a larger part of the strategic minerals market. By 2050: Recycling should be at a capacity for REEs, rare metals, phosphorus and platinum such that supply is no longer solely dependent on mining. In addition, new technologies should have decreased usage of REEs and other strategic minerals. Exploration will have established a good estimate of reserves left for most strategic elements. Mining will still continue for REEs, though these elements will now be mined at a high enough capacity that competition has reduced prices for end-products containing these elements. This makes development that much more achievable for countries for which high-technology devices are currently out of the price range of most citizens (i.e., developing countries with a small middle class). By 2070: Thorium will be used as a partial substitute for uranium in power plants, recycling rates will increase for strategic minerals across the board if they haven't already, and alternative technologies will be using fewer of these elements in their devices. Strategic minerals and their products should be available on the free market for any and all who choose to purchase them, at affordable prices for a middle class family. By 2100: Supply comes mainly from recycling and alternative technologies, versus mining for strategic elements. A lack of strategic minerals is no longer a barrier of entry for an aspiring nation to be developed. Bauer, D., Diamond, D., Li, J., Sandalow, D., Telleen, P., & Wanner, B. (2010). Critical Materials Strategy. U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved November 5, 2012, from http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/edg/news/documents/criticalmaterialsstrategy.pdf Bias, J. (2012). Carroll's legacy is safer Anglo mines [Editorial]. Financial Times. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://www.ft.com Camm, T. W. (1991). Simplified cost models for prefeasibility mineral evaluations. US Geological Survey. Retrieved November 19, 2012, from http://pubs.usgs.gov/usbmic Cawthorn, R. G. (2010). The Platinum Group Element Deposits of the Bushveld Complex in South Africa. Platinum Metals Review, 54 (4), pp. 205-215 De la Vergne, Jack (2003). Hard Rock Miner's Handbook. Tempe/North Bay: McIntosh Engineering. pp. 5465. Els, F. (2012, November). South African platinum players turn to Zimbabwe. Mining.com. Retrieved November 20, 2012 from http://www.mining.com/south-african-platinum-players-turn-to-zimbabwe-30262/ Fox, Z. (2012). Our iPhones are depleting the earth's resources. Mashable Tech. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from http://mashable.com/2012 Gschneidner, K. A., Jr. (2011). The rare earth crisis: The supply/demand situation for 2010-2015. Material Matters, 6(2). Retrieved November 19, 2012, from http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/ Gruber, P. W., Medina, P. A., Keoleian, G. A., Kesler, S. E., Everson, M. P., & Wallington, T. J. (2011). Global lithium availability: A constraint for electric vehicles? Journal of Industrial Ecology, 00(00), 1-16. Retrieved November 15, 2012, from http://www.eenews.net Hedrick, J. B. (2010). Rare Earth Industry Overview and Defense Applications (U.S., US Geological Survey). Retrieved November 19, 2012, from http://www.slideshare.net/RareEarthsRareMetals/rare-earthindoverviewsme2010#btnNext Increasing Metal Recoveries/Top-line Revenue. (n.d.). Intellimet. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from http://www.intelligentmetallurgy.com Katusa, M. (2012). The thing about thorium: Why the better nuclear fuel may not get a chance. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/energysource/2012/02/16/the-thing-about-thorium-why-the-better-nuclear-fuel- may-not-get-a-chance/ Leifert, H. Restarting U.S. rare earth production?. Earth magazine. June 2010. Pgs 2021. Lifton, J. (2011). The Rare Earth Mining Sector In 2015 And Beyond. Technology Metals Research. Retrieved November 20, 2012, from http://www.techmetalsresearch.com/2011/12/the-rare-earth-mining-sector-in-2015-and-beyond/ Lonso, E., Sherman, A., Wallington, T. J., Everson, M. P., Field, F. R., Roth, R., & Kirchain, R. E. (2012). Evaluating Rare Earth Element Availability: A Case with Revolutionary Demand from Clean Technologies. Environmental Science and Technology, 46(6). Retrieved November 21, 2012, from http://pubs.acs.org/doi Magyar, M. J. (2007). Rhenium. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved November 20, 2012, from http://minerals.usgs.gov Mudd, G. (2012). Key trends in the resource sustainability of platinum group elements. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, pp. 106-117. Nuclear energy around the world. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.nei.org/resourcesandstats/nuclear_statistics/worldstatistics/ Rare earths. (n.d.). UCore. Retrieved November 19, 2012, from ucore.com Rare earths and yttrium: Market outlook to 2015. (2011). Roskill. Retrieved November 20, 2012, from http://www.roskill.com/reports Rare-earth mining in China comes at a heavy cost for local villages [Editorial]. (2012, August 7). The Guardian. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment Schuler, D., Buchert, M., Liu, R., Dittrich, S., & Merz, C. (2011). Study on Rare Earths and Their Recycling (Issue brief). Retrieved November 10, 2012, from The Greens/EFA Group in the European Parliament website: http://reinhardbuetikofer.eu Schweitzer, P. (2012). Rare earth element mines, deposits, and occurrences. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://mrdata.usgs.gov/ree/ Goren, A. (2012). South Africa's Mining Problems And Their Effect On The Price Of Precious Metals. Seeking Alpha. Retrieved November 19, 2012, from http://seekingalpha.com/article Ulmer-Scholle, D. S. (2007). Uranium: How is it mined? New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://geoinfo.nmt.edu Supply of Uranium. (2012, August). World Nuclear. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf75.html Orris, G. J., & Grauch, R.I. (2012). Rare earth element mines, deposits and occurrences. U.S. Geological Survey. Retreived November 16, 2012, from http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/ U.S. Geological Survey (2012), Mineral commodity summaries 2012. U.S. Geological Survey, pp. 120-121. Vaccari, D. A. (2009). Phosphorus: A looming crisis. Scientific American, (June), 54-59. Retrieved November 16, 2012, from http://web.mit.edu Werdon, M. B., & Szumigala, D. J. (n.d.). Rare earth elements. Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys. Retrieved November 15, 2012, from http://www.dggs.alaska.gov

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